# Upper half-plane

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In mathematics, the **upper half-plane**, is the set of points in the Cartesian plane with The **lower half-plane** is the set of points with instead. Each is an example of two-dimensional half-space.

## Affine geometry

[edit]The affine transformations of the upper half-plane include

- shifts , , and
- dilations ,

**Proposition:** Let and be semicircles in the upper half-plane with centers on the boundary. Then there is an affine mapping that takes
to .

- Proof: First shift the center of to Then take

and dilate. Then shift to the center of

## Inversive geometry

[edit]**Definition:** .

can be recognized as the circle of radius centered at and as the polar plot of

**Proposition:** in and are collinear points.

In fact, is the inversion of the line in the unit circle. Indeed, the diagonal from to has squared length , so that is the reciprocal of that length.

## Metric geometry

[edit]The distance between any two points and in the upper half-plane can be consistently defined as follows: The perpendicular bisector of the segment from to either intersects the boundary or is parallel to it. In the latter case and lie on a ray perpendicular to the boundary and logarithmic measure can be used to define a distance that is invariant under dilation. In the former case and lie on a circle centered at the intersection of their perpendicular bisector and the boundary. By the above proposition this circle can be moved by affine motion to Distances on can be defined using the correspondence with points on and logarithmic measure on this ray. In consequence, the upper half-plane becomes a metric space. The generic name of this metric space is the hyperbolic plane. In terms of the models of hyperbolic geometry, this model is frequently designated the Poincaré half-plane model.

## Complex plane

[edit]Mathematicians sometimes identify the Cartesian plane with the complex plane, and then the upper half-plane corresponds to the set of complex numbers with positive imaginary part:

The term arises from a common visualization of the complex number as the point in the plane endowed with Cartesian coordinates. When the axis is oriented vertically, the "upper half-plane" corresponds to the region above the axis and thus complex numbers for which .

It is the domain of many functions of interest in complex analysis, especially modular forms. The lower half-plane, defined by is equally good, but less used by convention. The open unit disk (the set of all complex numbers of absolute value less than one) is equivalent by a conformal mapping to (see "Poincaré metric"), meaning that it is usually possible to pass between and

It also plays an important role in hyperbolic geometry, where the Poincaré half-plane model provides a way of examining hyperbolic motions. The Poincaré metric provides a hyperbolic metric on the space.

The uniformization theorem for surfaces states that the **upper half-plane** is the universal covering space of surfaces with constant negative Gaussian curvature.

The **closed upper half-plane** is the union of the upper half-plane and the real axis. It is the closure of the upper half-plane.

## Generalizations

[edit]One natural generalization in differential geometry is hyperbolic -space the maximally symmetric, simply connected, -dimensional Riemannian manifold with constant sectional curvature . In this terminology, the upper half-plane is since it has real dimension

In number theory, the theory of Hilbert modular forms is concerned with the study of certain functions on the direct product of copies of the upper half-plane. Yet another space interesting to number theorists is the Siegel upper half-space which is the domain of Siegel modular forms.

## See also

[edit]- Cusp neighborhood
- Extended complex upper-half plane
- Fuchsian group
- Fundamental domain
- Half-space
- Kleinian group
- Modular group
- Moduli stack of elliptic curves
- Riemann surface
- Schwarz–Ahlfors–Pick theorem